The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) below answer some of the most commonly asked questions patients have. Please check this section if you have questions, and click on the links below to learn more about FDgard.®


1 Pleyer, C., H. Bittner, G. R. Locke, R. S. Choung, A. R. Zinsmeister, C. D. Schleck, L. M. Herrick, and N. J. Talley. 2014. “Overdiagnosis of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease and Underdiagnosis of Functional Dyspepsia in a USA Community.” Neurogastroenterology and Motility 26 (8): 1163–71. doi:10.1111/nmo.12377.

2 Talley, NJ, MM Walker, and G Holtmann. 2016. “Functional Dyspepsia.” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 32 (4): 467–73. doi:10.1016/0300-2977(95)00099-9.

3 Stanghellini, Vincenzo, Francis K L Chan, William L. Hasler, Juan R. Malagelada, Hidekazu Suzuki, Jan Tack, and Nicholas J. Talley. 2016. “Gastroduodenal Disorders.” Gastroenterology 150 (6). Elsevier, Inc: 1380–92. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.011.

4 Talley, Nicholas J. 2017. “Functional Dyspepsia: Advances in Diagnosis and Therapy.” Gut and Liver 11 (3): 349–57.

5 Groschwitz, Katherine R, and Simon P Hogan. 2009. “Intestinal Barrier Function: Molecular Regulation and Disease Pathogenesis.” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 124 (1): 3-20-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.05.038.

6 Juergens, UR, M Stober, and H Vetter. 1998. “The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of L-Menthol Compared to Mint Oil in Human Monocytes in Vitro: A Novel Perspective for Its Therapeutic Use in Inflammatory Diseases.” European Journal of Medical Research 3 (12): 539–45.

7 Goerg, K. J., and Th Spilker. 2003. “Effect of Peppermint Oil and Caraway Oil on Gastrointestinal Motility in Healthy Volunteers: A Pharmacodynamic Study Using Simultaneous Determination of Gastric and Gall-Bladder Emptying and Orocaecal Transit Time.”Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2003.01421.x.

8 Adam, Birgit, Tobias Liebregts, Jan Best, Lars Bechmann, Carolin Lackner, Jens Neumann, Stephan Koehler, and Gerald Holtmann. 2006. “A Combination of Peppermint Oil and Caraway Oil Attenuates the Post-Inflammatory Visceral Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model.” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 41 (2): 155–60. doi:10.1080/00365520500206442.

9 Yu, Qinghua, Pengcheng Li, and Qian Yang. 2010. “Improving the Absorption of Earthworm Fibrinolytic Enzymes with Mucosal Enhancers.” Pharmaceutical Biology 48 (7): 816–21. doi:10.3109/13880200903283681.

10 Thompson Coon, J, and E Ernst. 2002. “Systematic Review: Herbal Medicinal Products for Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia.” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 16 (10): 1689–99. doi:10.1046/j.0269-2813.2002.01339.x.

11 Baananou, Sameh, Edita Bagdonaite, Bruno Marongiu, Alessandra Piras, Silvia Porcedda, Danilo Falconieri, and Naceur Boughattas. 2013. “Extraction of the Volatile Oil from Carum Carvi of Tunisia and Lithuania by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Chemical Composition and Antiulcerogenic Activity.” Natural Product Research 27 (22): 2132–36. doi:10.1080/14786419.2013.771350.

12 Rozza, Ariane Leite, Felipe Meira De Faria, Alba Regina Souza Brito, Clá Udia, and Helena Pellizzon. 2014. “The Gastroprotective Effect of Menthol: Involvement of Anti-Apoptotic, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities.” PLoS ONE 9 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086686.

13 Talley, Nicholas J., and Nimish Vakil. 2005. “Guidelines for the Management of Dyspepsia.” American Journal of Gastroenterology 100 (10): 2324–37. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.00225.x.

14 Rasool, Shahid, Shahab Abid, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal, Naseema Mehboobali, Ghulam Haider, and Wasim Jafri. 2012. “Relationship between Vitamin B12, Folate and Homocysteine Levels and H. Pylori Infection in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia: A Cross-Section Study.” BMC Research Notes 5 (1): 206. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-206.

15 Bischoff, Stephan C, Giovanni Barbara, Wim Buurman, Theo Ockhuizen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Matteo Serino, Herbert Tilg, Alastair Watson, and Jerry M Wells. 2014. “Intestinal Permeability – a New Target for Disease Prevention and Therapy.” BMC Gastroenterology 14 (1): 189. doi:10.1186/s12876-014-0189-7.

16 Kindt, S., A. Tertychnyy, G. De Hertogh, K. Geboes, and J. Tack. 2009. “Intestinal Immune Activation in Presumed Post-Infectious Functional Dyspepsia.” Neurogastroenterology and Motility 21 (8): 832–38. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01299.x.

17 Kassinen A, Krogius-Kurikka L, Makivuokko H, et al., The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subject. Gastroenterology 2007; 133:24-33.

18 Annahazi A, Ferrier L, Bezirard V, et al. Luminal cysteine-proteases degrade colonic tight junction structure and are responsible for andominal pain in constipation-predominant IBS. Am J Gastroenterol 2013; 108:1322-31.

19 Lee H, Park JH, Park DI, et al. Mucosal mast cell count is associated with intestinal permeability in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013; 19:244-50.

20 Matricon J, Meleine M, Gelot A, et al. Review article: associations between immune activation, intestinal permeability and the irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 36:1009-31.

21 Vanheel H, Vicario M, Vanuytsel T, et al. Impaired duodenal mucosal integrity and low-grade inflammation in functional dyspepsia. Gut 63 2014; doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303857.

22 Martinez C, Lobo B, Pigrau M, et al. Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: an organic disorder with structural abnormalities in the jejunal epithelial barrier. Gut 2012; 62:1160-8.

23 Dr. Ananya Mandal, supra fn. 79.

24 Kamath, P.S. et al., abnormal gallbladder motility in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence for target-organ defect. Am J Physiol 260:G815-G819, 1991.

25 Zong, L. et al., Preliminary experimental research on the mechanism of liver  bile secretion stimulated by peppermint oil. J Dig Dis. 2011 Aug: 12(4):295-301.

26 Balakrishnan, A., Therapeutic uses of peppermint—A review. J Pharm Sci & Res. Vol. 7(7), 2015, 474-476.